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Key Messages
• Clay incorporation using a spader and rotary hoe, markedly
improves crop yields supposed to offset discs. These methods
also make claying more affordable.
• Deep ripping prior to claying can significantly improve crop yields
by ameliorating physical soil constraints such as compaction.
• Soil testing is important before and after the claying process as
soil nutrition can be greatly when soil is mixing with the profile.
• Depending on depth to clay, alternative methods can be used
to eliminate the need for claying and bring existing clay to the
soil surface (e.g. deep ripping, mouldboard ploughing, delving).