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• Spading is a useful farming practice to incorporate shallow clay in the top soil profile.
• Before altering the soil profile with on-farm clay pits, take the time to analyse the clay
and consider what other ameliorates may be a useful addition prior to incorporation.
• Electromagnetic (EM) and Gamma-radiometric (GR) are useful techniques to identify the
suitability of paddocks to different incorporation methods.
• Crop/pasture productivity can be greatly improved by reducing the non-wetting
characteristics of soils. In turn, greater yields also correspond with a reduction in soil
erosion due to better retention of plant residues.